Africa is a vast continent which hold long period of history in its cultural, economy, social, and technological for long time Africa has dream to unite and being under one leadership with people of great cultural value, the continent had dream on not only cultural but to have people with common interest ,common citizenship and destiny there so many people who believe on Africa unity but this people are trying to show us only advantages which the continent will benefit after the unit while escaping to evaluate the way on how to unite. These elites (either African or None) are trying or little point the impossible side of Africa unit. I personally strongly disagree with this point of unity as I see the leaders of African and its future in steady of uniting Africa continent, there will be more separation. Unity in African can be achievable but only if (there always has been the word if in Africa unit) we realize our problem and misunderstanding that incorporate with early stage and effort of unite we are working on African leaders must first and foremost recognize that unity in Africa is in our best interest and the only option we have if we want to attain peace, stability and economic development. We all must recognize that we can only make progress if North, South, East, Central and West Africa come together as one, act together as one and speak with one voice. Unity is the only key to our economic success. We can only make progress if we dismantle the artificial boundaries that have divided our peoples for quite too long. We can never develop if we continue to hold on to the artificial colonial divisions that divided tribes, peoples and regions without considering the needs of the people. We must unite as one people if we are to guarantee the future survival of our continent, its people, and its resources. We can only guarantee the rights of our children and their children’s children to be the owners of our great continent if we take steps to unite our countries.

Boundaries of Africa

Africa since the post colonial period has done a little or nothing to change the borders which were made by colonial people this borders has become the problem for African unity as one states. Also this border for over century it has been the agent of country to country or nation to nation or even civilian unrest in most countries such as Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad and other countries with related unrest one thing Africa leaders and African ourselves should remember it is easy to exploits the country wealth, natural resources if the country is not united we will always witness America, United kingdom, Germany, Japan, and others superpowers use our continent in benefit of their own citizen while African people will keep starving and going back to Europe to beg for help. Africa continent is helpless and it will remain helpless until the time that citizens will realize that leaders are not the only one suppose to propose the development strategies but all of us ,African will remain disunited until the time that people of the continent will realize that leaders are not God’s but human who we put them there to work for us so that put more pressure on good leadership, Africa will remain unnoticeable until the time that citizen will start to realize the value of their own culture and disregard of colonial mentality, Africa today are under siege from foreign powers and their corporations who are raping the continent of its valuable resources for their own selfish gains.

African leaders greedy of power

There many leaders now who want Africa to unite but between these many there very few who are committed into this act of unit such as late JULIUS NYERERE, KWAME NKURUMAH, most who surround them talk unit in mouth but reality they just want power they are eager and greedy of power than uniting their fellow African citizens, this kind of leaders are such as MUAMOR GHADAFF of Libya president MUGGABE of Zimbabwe YOWERI MUSSEVEN of UGANDA this type of leader have been undermining their citizens right and also so much greedy of power to such extent that they able to change constitution to let them be into power for a very long time, the remaining do not have even single continent unity ideal but they just imposters of western powers and super power to destroy and avoid the idea of unity , in recent years America has been striving to introduce military bases in Africa there so few leaders who took an act to suggest to why America need Africa so much for military bases (AFRICOM)project. All these countries are strategising for the next phase of global politics which will centre on who controls what vital resources and in which area. This underscores the reason why US is seeking military bases in Africa to protect her interest and to ensure that its resource needs are met at all cost. In any resistance of given country America will be able to invade those country if necessary by force but how our small countries will manage to respond to America impossible, when African country being resistible to African unit how sure they are that they can respond to this kind of threat, it only by uniting this continent that is how Africa might manage to respond to this countries in this point America will go through various countries of Africa promising huge aid and also giving hand to various project so that most of this African countries will stretch their hand and receive this help in return there will be no true African union but only propaganda America and other super power will win Africa will loose

European manifestation of disunite Africa

There is big fear of European countries over Africa unit they both knows well and have studied well on African leadership and philosophy knowing the danger facing them European countries will not or never easily leave Africa alone with its development strategies but rather it will increases pressure into disunite. There many European countries which benefit from Africa disunite in order to weaken this continent European countries such as France has started Mediterranean Union´ an association that encompasses all nations bordering the Mediterranean Sea including the five north African countries, a move largely seen as an attempt by Europeans to weaken Africa’s effort to unite. This is the divide and rule policies of Europe that has ensured that continental Africa never gets united to do things central to their own people. The Mediterranean Union project is also rife with hidden agendas, including the promotion of French national interests, while ignoring some of the biggest dangers in the former European colonies in West Asia and Africa… France’s real motive, though, is to establish a French southern sphere of influence to counter Germany’s dominant position in central and Eastern Europe while British has put effort more in aiding Africa English speaking countries as an effort to win France to create her interest territorial this was first noted by the president of Senegal ABDOULAYE WADE when he said ‘’ But of course there are other obvious goals behind the Union for the Mediterranean initiative like Algeria’s oil and gas and Libyan oil’’ these African countries which incorporated in this so called Mediterranean project should realizes that they are African countries and not European countries they are for interest of Africa and not Europe. Giving example of Libya ongoing civil unrest France was the first national to propose on battle against Libyan president MUAMAR GADDAFI while African countries would not do such a thing to other African countries but only by negations these indicates on how European are enjoying on Africa disunite. Today Europe is moving forward with political and economic integration while it is making effort to weaken Africa with the hope that a weakened, fragmented and disunited Africa will make it easier for the resources of these countries to be exploited and looted as is currently going on in Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, DRC, Angola, Congo where American and European multinational corporations are paying close to nothing for the resources they take. if African countries will not realizes this trend made by European nation then Africa will never unite

Colonial mentality of African people

I have been observing African people ever since my high school in my little knowledge i took history which i come into knowing that the colonisation of Africa was done through dividing African into various countries of Europe. Then these countries came up with marvellous plan a plan that they will use for long time later this was to civilize African according to their test, so in Africa it is not that we only have boundaries of our countries which divide us but we were impacted with love to our masters through their ruling system which is people were made to think and act as their masters do in normal circumstance this might seem of less impact to our unity but in really sense it is a problem, most African leaders and people are still holding this may see to be ignored in all process of unity but for centuries this had been the source for many disputes in Africa continent, the thinking of Anglophone, Francophone, and Arabs or Mediterranean’s had destroyed Africa for centuries, people who comes from Arab look like countries such as Libya, Sudan, Egypt had been regarding themselves as Arab and giving or paying more attention to Arabic and middle east countries Northern and southern Sudan is like ying and yang will never meet colours has been main reason for separations in the regions, people who speak English are thought to be better than French speak and French speaking countries are thought to be super civilized than the other really African themselves has lost sense of brotherhood and unity but rather prefer to hail other culture and other people, and yet it is not seems to be a problem to Africa unite very few expert will tell about this problem as a problem but minor problem lead to big problem if not tackled in its early stages most countries of Africa prefers to act individually than corporations, make individual decisions with superpowers which ends to exploit them, leaders are less committed to help their own people will never be able to corporate with other countries,

Religion and language

Africa has wide number of believe and ideology may be more than other continent Africa has concentrated into western and eastern form of believes as Muslims and Christian being large number. This pose big problem in unifying Africa as one country most expert say Africa should be united by 2017 but there is very little effort for that there is no satisfying implantation of this policy but just word of mouth, African union will not be achieved by the end of 2017 if the African people will not solve the problem religion, simple example take the countries like Sudan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Cameroun, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, and others, this countries has joined Muslim organization (OIC) already many years ago in which most Muslim countries from other part of the world are member too in normal sense I will not expect African union to hand problem which will associate with Muslim world while still in Africa union they might someday happen collision in both sides and then other countries of southern Africa are under SADC this is another problem to handle and other already form union like East Africa union which serve diversity interest of East African people rather than African united state as it is said, language also pose huge argument in this most countries trying to impose their own language as language for Africa there is not one language agreed as for Africa, take example of Tanzania, Tanzania it’s Swahili had won to be used in Africa union meeting and summit but African citizen still too far back on accepting Swahili as language of union there few number of people who speak Swahili other than east Africa, Congo, Comoro’s some parts of Madagascar, most of the French speaking countries will have to be taught and northern African countries, in order for Africa to unify his people the continent need to impose huge budget in spreading these language by employ curricular to various African university and other small level of education such as first primary school so that small children grow up with Swahili as their first language, We have to accept that various types of political systems currently evidence in Africa, monarchies, democracies and autocracies as well as the huge size of the continent, the high level of illiteracy, wide infrastructural gaps and different levels of poverty, still will hinder Africa unity unless otherwise African take serious into this then only true African united state will be reached by 2017

If we observe all this problem and careful plan the strategy on how to reach this union in doing this there should be number of research done in order to avoid inconviences in this unity then I will come to the agreement that only through tackling this problem first and understanding African ideology and dealing with the differences inside Africa first that the only way Africa can unite to form united states of Africa if not it will be a disaster


The reason why you are not rich (or you cannot even think of it) is really quite easy reason. You probably assume it’s because you aren’t earning enough money to support your family or necessary need, but the truth is that for most people, whether or not you become a rich (millionaire) or wealth has very little to do with the amount of money you make. It’s the way that you treat money in your daily life.Some people they just can’t respect money and never think of changing these atitude.


1. You Ignore Your Finances
You take the attitude that if you make enough, the finances will take care of themselves. If you currently have debt, it will somehow resolve itself in the future. Unfortunately, it takes planning to become wealthy. It doesn’t magically happen to the vast majority of people.
In reality, it is probably not just one of the below bad habits that has kept you from becoming a millionaire, but a combination of a few of them probably. Take a hard look at the list below and do some reflecting. If you want to be a rich,milionaire or wealthier, it’s well within your power, but you’ll have to face the issues that are currently keeping you from creating that wealth before you will have a chance to call yourself one of them.
2. You’re Financially coward
You are so scared of risk so that you keep all your money in a savings account that is actually in economic way of thinking you probably losing money insteady of keeping it or saving (keeping money in saving account is a loss) when inflation is put into the equation, yet you refuse to move it to a place where higher rates of return are possible because you’re afraid that you will lose money this habit keeps you so cheap
3. You Invest in Things You Don’t Understand.
You hear that your neighbor or Philip has made a lot of money doing that or this, and you want to get in on the gravy train. If Philip really did make money, he did so because he understood how the investment worked. Throwing in your money because someone else has made money without fully understanding how the investment works will keep you from being wealthy and make others wealthier through you.
4. You depend on Others to Take Care of Your financial matters
You believe that others have more knowledge about money matters and you rely exclusively on their judgment when deciding where you should invest your money. Unfortunately, most people want to make money themselves, and this is their primary objective when they tell you how to invest your money. Listen to other people’s advice to get new ideas, but in the end you should know enough to make your own investing decisions.
5. You Try to Make a Quick Money.
For the vast majority of people wealth doesn’t come instantly. You may believe that people winning the lottery are a dime a dozen, but the truth is you’re far more likely to get struck by lightning than win the lottery. This desire to get rich quickly likely extends into the way you invest be the king of financial planning and live to see your growing milionaire.
6. You Haven’t Prepared
Bad things happen to the best of people from time to time, and if you haven’t prepared for such a thing to happen to you through insurance, any wealth that you might have built can be gone in an instant.Keep insurance of everything you worse house,car,life and health insurance and anything valuable accidents happening, unimaginable can be possible.
7. You Have No Goals
It’s difficult to build wealth if you haven’t taken the time to know what you realy want vast majority of people just run into something without good preparation and goals . If you haven’t set wealth goals, you aren’t likely to attain them. You need to do more than state, “I want to be a millionaire.” You need to take the time to set saving and investing goals on a yearly basis and come up with a plan for how to achieve those goals and how to excute them.
8. You Have Bad Habits
Whether it’s smoking, drinking,clubing, gambling or some other bad habit, the habit is using up a lot of money that could go toward building wealth. Most people don’t realize that the cost of their bad habits extends far beyond the immediate cost. Take smoking, for example: It costs a lot more than the pack of cigarettes purchased. It also negatively affects your wealth in the form of higher insurance rates and decreased value of your home drinking can realy risk your life, your property (drunk and drive sound easy but cost life even)and family.
9.Avoid credit card or do not use it at all
Credit card mean to keep you poor but look wealth while keeping other wealth people wealthier, Until the era of credit cards it was difficult to spend more than you had. That is not the case today. If you have credit card debt because you couldn’t wait until you had enough money to purchase something in cash, you are making others wealthy while keeping yourself in debt without noticing that.
10. You Care What Your Neighbors Think
If you’re competing against them and their material possessions, you’re wasting your hard-earned money on toys to impress them instead of building your wealth, show off cost more than your own income buying expensive stuffs while you could use second hand stuffs example of the stuffs we can use second hand such as Television, home theaters,Books,all these can save money.


Most of the African countries are still struggling for development, various still in covered with the darkness of poverty. There many scholars who suggested various views in the development of Africa continent yet there are few or no positives results of their theories, the donors have been giving huge contribution on various sectors through monetary ,physical and moral aids yet there less than expectation, regarding that Africa continent if focused well in the problem facing it. It have ability to provide or to feed the whole through agriculture, it have ability to provide sustainable tourism, enough to provide raw materials and mineral to the whole but only this can be achievable only when Africans, leaders and the world organizations change their altitude on Africa and put more focus on the problem than providing funds and building projects which are not really problem of Africa. In here we going to see how poor governance is itself endogenously determined by the backwardness of the economy; a corrupt and incompetent government is part of the development problem, not just a cause of it Africa remain poor but also injustice, corrupt and undemocratic

African continent since the creation of the it, it has never been regarded as poor place on earth due to the fact that in back then before 15 century, at this time there no place to make comparison with due to the factor that there were no contact with the outside world or any other continent to compare with, as Rodney says ;(Development in human society is a many-sided process. At the level of the individual, it implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well-being. Some of these are virtually moral categories and are difficult to evaluate – depending as they do on the age in which one lives, one’s class origins, and one’s personal code of what is right and what is wrong)
According to the school of thought (J. E. Casely-Hayford, 1922) at least most of these continents were in the same level of development ‘Before even the British came into relations with our people, we were a developed people, having our own institutions, having our own ideas of government. ‘in return it is almost 50 to 60 years now of African countries independents and freedom Africa is still one poor place on earth , its people suffering from malnutrition, starvation, war on borders, civil war, tribe and ethnics disputes.
There many strategies and effort African governments have been doing and still doing yet yield a little result in serving African people, in east Africa countries there adopted various system of administration, from democracy, limited democracy, social life and social justice such as socialism, capitalism and even there once tried to establish east Africa community in 1967 and collapsed in 1977 all this were done to fasten development but none of this gave satisfying results to the people,
The east African community has been renewed its team already in operation with the Republics of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Republic of Rwanda and Republic of Burundi with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania. East African Community was signed on 30 November 1999 and entered into force on 7 July 2000 following its ratification by the original three Partner States – Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The Republic of Rwanda and the Republic of Burundi acceded to the EAC Treaty on 18 June 2007 and became full Members of the Community with effect from 1 July 2007.
In order to attain development most of the African countries had to look back to history of the continent without condemning the fact but accepting it and restructuring the whole governing system, with regard on the nature behavior and characters of African people themselves in so doing African leaders and African people themselves will not be going against their own nature but rather achieving their goals without destroying the history and development which already achieved as well as maintaining good relationship with the outside world in a win – win relations

There is no universal agreement definition on term “ethics or ethical” (Ayee, 1998). The question of ethics is one that is linked to the history of humankind. It is said to deals with the character and conduct of morals of human beings. It deals with good or bad, right or wrong behavior it puts negative or positive values on it (Hanekom, 1984). Similarly, Chapman (1993) defines ethics as the basic principles of the right action and rules of conduct. These criteria can be in writing or merely the interpretation by an individual of what is acceptable and what is not. The Charter for the Public Service in Africa refers to ethics as “the standards which guide the behaviors and actions of personnel in public institutions” Article 22 of this Charter further provides ethics to mean a sound culture based on ethical values and principles. Such values and principles according to the Charter include efficiency, professional discipline, dignity, equity, impartiality, fairness, public – spiritedness and courtesy in the discharge of duties. Therefore public service ethics are broad norms that delineate how public servants – as agents of the state and ,where applicable, as members of an established profession such as accounting, law, human resource management, etc should exercise judgement and discretion in carrying out their official duties, if ethical fail to ( or incase of lower ) performances then in any country leadership and individual moral the possibility of the given state or national development is in high state of fail as well, the history of African administrative system and those of western style in background or historically was never been the same as of western style
Accountable or accountability although accountability is widely believed to be a good and effective thing, this is highly abstract and it is often used in a very general way (Hulme and Sanderatne, 2008). A typical definition is that accountability concerns the reality that the elected candidates and those who are given the ability to exercise power whether as governments, as elected representatives or as appointed officials, must be able to show that they have used their power and discharged their duties in a proper way which create faith to citizens instead of loosing trust from citizens
Fox Meyer (1995) defines accountability as the “responsibility of government and its agents towards the public to achieve previously set objectives and to account for them in public” It is also regarded as a commitment required from public officials individually and collectively to accept public responsibility for their own action and inaction. In this case, the burden of accountability rests on each public functionary to act in the public interest and according to his/her conscience, with solutions for every matter based on professionalism and participation. is a concept in ethics and governance with several meanings. It is often used synonymously with such concepts as responsibility, answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and other terms associated with the expectation of account-giving. As an aspect of governance, it has been central to discussions related to problems in the public sector, nonprofit and private (corporate) worlds. In leadership roles, accountability is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products, decisions, and policies including the administration, governance, and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report, explain and be answerable for resulting consequences.
Accountability in the public sector is broader than in the private sector (Ole Ingstrup and Crookall, 1998). In the private sector, everyone in the company is accountable to its board. The public sector is also accountable to a board of sorts: the minister, cabinet and legislature. But the public sector has additional accountability to its employees and to its customers, the citizens who use the services – as well as to its non – customers, the citizens who don’t use the service. It is a different kind of accountability, more subtle and indirect. Therefore, in general accountability for performance and the obligation that public functionaries (elected and appointed officials) have to give a satisfactory explanation over the exercise of power, authority and resources entrusted in them on behalf of the public (tax payer). Subsumed with this definition is a myriad of legal, oral and ethical obligations that come with the occupancy of any public office (Sarji, 1995). In short, it is the obligation to carry out assigned activities in a responsible and responsive manner, and being held answerable for success or failure. As such when we talk about “accountability” in the public service, we cannot but consider the question of bureaucratic responsibility.
Internal accountability means that at each level in the hierarchical organization, public officials are accountable to those who supervise and control their work. On the other hand, external accountability means answerability for action carried out and performance achieved to other relevant and concerned authorities outside his/her department or organization. Accountability is therefore an ethical virtue, since ethics concern principles and rules that govern the moral value of people’s behavior. Improving ethics is crucial to enhancing accountability and vice versa
Accountability are of many types there is ethical accountability which is based on the practice of improving overall personal and organizational performance by developing and promoting responsible tools and professional expertise, and by advocating an effective enabling environment for people and organizations to embrace a culture of sustainable development. Ethical accountability may include the individual, as well as small and large businesses, not-for-profit organizations, research institutions and academics, and government and then there is administrative accountability in which is internal rules and norms as well as some independent commission are mechanisms to hold civil servant within the administration of government accountable. Within department or ministry, firstly, behavior is bounded by rules and regulations secondly, civil servants are subordinates in a hierarchy and accountable to superiors. Nonetheless, there are independent “watchdog” units to scrutinize and hold departments in terms of accountable legitimacy of these commissions is built upon their independence as, it avoids any conflicts of interest. Third is market accountability which is Under voices for decentralization and privatization of the government, services provided are nowadays more “customer-driven” and should aim to provide convenience and various choices to citizens; with this perspective, there are comparisons and competition between public and private services and this, ideally, improves quality of service. As mentioned by Bruce Stone, the standard of assessment for accountability is therefore “responsiveness of service providers to a body of ‘sovereign’ customers and produce quality service. Outsourcing service is one means to adopt market accountability. Government can choose among a shortlist of companies for outsourced service; within the contracting period, government can hold the company by rewriting contracts or by choosing another company.
This sometimes known as transparency which promotes accountability and provides information for citizens about what their government and its agents are doing. If government lack openness to its citizens then that is a good indicator that the government had failure in or it’s not accountable and ethical generally, “openness” implies transparency, communication and accountability. It is a metaphorical extension of the meaning a “transparent” object is one that can be seen through. With regard to the public services, it means that holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest demands it (Chapman, 2000). Radical transparency in management demands that all decision making should be carried out publicly. All draft documents, all arguments for and against a proposal, the decision about the decision making process itself, and all final decisions, are made publicly and remain publicly in this case most of the African government has been lacking the case of openness which results into civil unrest the countries like DRC(democratic republic of Congo) has been facing this problem for such long time ,Sudan the south Sudan civil and political unrest whereby there no any convincing reasons for the outbreak and the country has been not open to engage in solving the problem and bring peace in a region. Same problem had happened in Republic of Tanzania during election in 2010 due to two political (CCM and CHADEMA) parties disagreement in election results Also same case had once happened in Kenya election few years back whereby number of people were injured, mainly political unrest in Africa are result of lack of transparent of the government toward the citizen
Sometimes known as integrity the concept of integrity has to do with perceived consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations and outcome. When used as a virtue term, “integrity” refers to a quality of a person’s character. Some people see integrity as the quality of having a sense of honesty and truthfulness in regard to the motivations for one’s actions.
Persons of integrity do not just act consistently with their endorsements, they stand for something they stand up for their best judgement within a community of people trying to discover what in life is worth doing. Some commentators stress the idea of integrity as personal honesty acting according to one’s beliefs and values at all times. Speaking about integrity can emphasize the “wholeness” or “intactness” of a moral stance or attitude. Some of the wholeness may also emphasize commitment and authenticity. In the context of accountability, integrity serves as a measure of willingness to adjust value system to maintain or improve its consistency when an expected result appears incongruent with observed outcome. Some regard integrity as a virtue in that they see accountability and moral responsibility as necessary tools for maintaining such consistency. As Carter (1906) has stated integrity requires three steps discerning what is right and what is wrong acting on what you have discerned even at personal cost and saying openly that you are acting on your understanding of right from wrong
Within the context of this paper, public service professionalism is defined as the overall value that encompasses all other values that guide the public service. They include loyalty, neutrality, transparency, diligence, punctuality, effectiveness, impartiality, and other values that may be specific to the public services of individual countries. Public Service Professionalism embraces the notion that those people who join the Public Service need to be inculcated with shared values and trained in basic skills to professionally carry out their official duties. It is very normal or it is made common in East African countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi to find that some leaders were not trained in to be some kind of sectors yet most of them their leading those sectors some can be political leader in mining sector while his professional basically is medicine or healthy sector so here we find out most of these political leaders like ministers or professionals such as directors fail to implement the effective development policy in the sector their governing while if they were in their basic professional could make easier for them as their expert in the field
The rationale behind professionalism is that public servants should be neutral, impartial, fair, and competent and serve the public interest in carrying out their duties. They should be top people who are fairly remunerated and adequately trained to perform their work. Professionalism, in a sense means excellent work culture, is an internalized duty to do well. It is a kind of performance ethic, close to a noble calling, by which professionals simply are called to do their best, for anything less would be embarrassing to them. It is an ingrained pride in performance. More than that professionalism is adherence to a set of normative and behavioral expectations usually embodied in a code of ethics.



Africa nations as it is said above in the introduction according to the nature of African or pre colonial societies African didn’t practice democracy rather than rule of law, the rule of law in pre colonial societies where the most practices and it is the one we can use to define the nature of Africa including east Africa itself We find that African countries where a larger share of the population belongs to ethnic groups with centralized (rather than fragmented) pre-colonial institutions have lower corruption and better rule of law. Pre-colonial institutions crucially shaped Modernization efforts in colonial Uganda. Also it could be found in Rwanda and some parts of kagera (Tanzania) the aim of this paper is not to show how pre colonial societies existed or organized but through that we can easily trace why African democracy has malfunction and through democracy people can achieve development and better administration function in the various organ.

Since independence of Africa most African nations including East Africa itself democracy has never been well practiced. There is more danger to fear in democratic practice of East African nations and Africa in general, when dangers mentioned here it means threat in terms of administrative behaviors and social development. In 2007 the presidential election in Kenya was world headlines for all the various reasons, after widespread violence left over 1,500 people dead. Elections held there in 2002 were widely regarded as democratic, voting out the ruling party that had been in power since independence in 1963. After what was described as Kenya’s most competitive elections, Raila Odinga was said to have beaten President Mwai Kibaki, but official results that were delayed eventually announced Kibaki the winner.

The same happened in Tanzania election in 2010 where by the results were delayed for almost one day and at the end of day the ruling party took over again and President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete was announced winner against Dr Slaa but the question remaining the same is this what democracy mean for Africa, in Uganda President Yoweri Museven has already abolished presidential term limits in accordance with what claimed to be the discovered of Oil in lake Albert in order to avoid conflicts as what happening in Nigeria due to discover of oil, is this the fact or Museven is using oil reason to keep up himself into power,

In short what Africa demand more is not western democracy but rather justice, rule of law, and equality in doing so there will be better administration system and Africa will experience development just like their allies China who condemned to have no human right unsteady of democracy. This poor democratic practices one by African countries supported more by western powers proves failure of various government in African nations and threatens African economy and political opportunity of the developing countries, when democracy is not well practiced it is against accountability it also distort professionalism and integrity it a case than one cannot intercommunicate or engaged with others and also there is no effective accountable in government organ where by people don’t act responsible to their duty which lead to poor administrative method . According to Weber’s pessimistic belief that there is a distinct tension between the administrative and democratic realm under Habermas’ theorem, it is in the distinction between the public and private realm that the fluid and essentially free format of legislative deliberation is possible for individuals attempting to create a communicative agreement. This polity emerges out of a public discourse attained through the social experiences gained in civil society, and the political discussion of the effects we have on each other. In a more subordinated approach to legislative/judicial power attained by recognizing the multi- dimensional reality of today’s society


Corruption is another threat to the economy and political fortunes of poor countries the most bribery and conflict of interest or illegal deals impose heavy costs on the economy while distorting development policies and undermining confidence in public institutions. Broadly defined, according to (Cipe, 2008) corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for personal gain Corruption is one of the most serious unethical practices that undermine trust and confidence of public officials. Public confidence can only be reclaimed by establishing a reputation of integrity. Both business and society bear the costs of corruption through various ways such as when there is corruption in administrative system in east Africa corruption is the major problem facing the countries and community in general according to various reports Kenya corruption ranked the first in East Africa compared to 65 percent of Tanzania and 60 of Uganda this report was due to The East Africa Bribery Index 2009 a joint project of Transparency International-Kenya, Transparency International-Uganda, and Tanzania Transparency Forum. The main cause of corruption in east Africa and Africa in general are due to

1. Unclear, complex, and frequently changing laws and regulations
When laws are contradictory or require heavy interpretation, the discretionary power of officials is amplified, increasing the risk that they will make arbitrary, self – serving decisions when laws are unpredictable, entrepreneurs do not know their rights and obligations, so they can not comply fully nor defend themselves for example against illegal inspections. Corruption then becomes a means to circumvent inefficiency and arbitrary official actions. Normally in East Africa countries the reverse of rule of law for protection of people in to power are made common the constitution are made to favours the leaders for example in Tanzania it’s impossible to incriminate the president for what he had done when was into power that make him easy to misuse his power this cause lack of integrity between people who are into power and the people they rule, the ruler and the ruled.

2. Lack of transparency and accountability
When deals are made behind closed doors, it becomes impossible to assess the criteria behind decisions, whether they serve public interest and respect the law. If violators on both the public and private sides conceal their transactions, they escape being accountable. They also various scandal regarding leaders to sign various agreement which were not open to citizens in East Africa such as the radar scandal of Tanzania which involved British company this came after the company allegedly admitted it was guilty of dubious financial dealings in its sale of a USD 46million Watch Air Traffic Control System to Tanzania the contact where signed in 1999 and it was not open to citizen

3. Low public service salaries
Among the countries which face low wages and long working hours are African countries in east Africa for example the normal salary of an official can at least rank from 200$ to 500$ such as teachers, military, police and other security organ they are the lowest salary earners when officials cannot meet what they perceive as their daily needs through their salaries, they resort to corruption to supplement their income. However, simply raising the wages of officials will not curb corruption so long as opportunities to abuse the system persist.

Exhibit (1.3)

4. Inadequate, inconsistent, and unfair enforcement of laws and regulations
In east Africa the law against corruption are open but most of the time this law contradicts with the constitutions of the these nations which results into poor administrative power and misuse of public properties by either the people who enforce and protect law which is lawyers, police, judges and court judicial system or the people who make law ministers and members of parliament, Even if laws to combat corruption are on the books, law enforcement can invite abuse. A weak justice system, low penalties, and high cost of compliance will render laws ineffective which in return will lead to unsatisfying of public administrative method which cause corrupt of moral of workers against concept of integrity


1. Lower investment
In any corrupt nation development must be very slow in fact Foreign and domestic investors are scared off by unpredictable costs. Rampant corruption signals to potential investors that the rule of law, and thus property rights, are very weak in the country, making an investment there a risky proposition, Lower investment means lower growth. Corruption has made major impacts on political and public administration where by the workers and official moral breakdown start when the officials start to serve for themselves this become problem to administrative accountability which reduce the effectiveness of the majority and deteriorate economy and development

2. Unresponsive policies and poor administration
Law makers in corrupt systems use their powers to help rent – seekers, not citizenry as a whole. Bureaucrats are not held accountable for their performance and actually have incentives to delay services in order to extract bribes. Poor administration policy can lead to government failure mostly politicians might have poor information on how to provide service or which type of service to provide to citizens in East African nations this has caused poverty and lack of public services in many parts of the area, politician are basically based on political matters rather than identifying problems to their societies

3. Reduction in competition, efficiency and innovation
For instance the companies which are owned by the people who are into power or multibillion companies can easily enter competition due to the fact that they can use their superiority to overtake the weak also rent – seeking means that favored companies do not compete on market signals alone, while new firms face high barriers to entry. Consumers end up paying in terms of higher prices, lower quality, and limited product offerings.

4. Exacerbated poverty
Corruption lowers the income potential of the poor because there are fewer private sector opportunities. It also limits their access to quality public services such as health care and education.

5. Resource Misallocation
In public administration man power is basic part of developing good services to societies but knowledge know how is the most required factor for one to inter the services but where there is corruption it might mislead the society into incompetent officers who are not well trained into discipline required which directly affecting professionalism, Human Resources that could be put to productive uses are instead devoted to corruption. Firms waste time and resources on rent – seeking – cultivating relationships with officials and spending on bribes, Officials make biased decisions (e.g. in investment) that do not serve the public interest, and taxpayers swallow the cost.

In their books (Robert B. Denhardt and Professor Janet Vinzant Denhardt) the new public services; serving rather than steering, they have focused seven lesson on how new public services has to be done one is serve rather steer which mean in public administrative the most important thing is to help citizen articulate and meet their shared interest rather than to attempt to control society in new direction in a democratic society it is rely to see conflicts in election time, it is hard to see citizen conflict or unrest due to election result, citizen unrest during elections show how the state or nation tries to control people opinion in their direction which is in some way or another is it undemocratic but cohesive and not rule of law but power also they continue to say public administrators must contribute to build a collective shared notion of the public interest, the goal is not to find quick driven by individual choices but rather it is the creation of shared interest and shared responsibility, public servants should be attentive to more than the market they should also attend to statutory and constitutional law, community values, political norms and professional standards and citizens interests, which is accountability in another way, also the democratic government think strategically and act democratically always the government which doesn’t think strategically is a failed government and need a reform to be active for future development. In public administration the governments have to value people or public interest and citizen must be committed to making meaningful contribution to society rather than by entrepreneurial managers acting as if public money were theirs



The African Communist A published quarterly by the South African Communist
Party as a forum for Marxist-Leninist thought Issue Number 177 of First Quarter 2009

The African Communist a published quarterly by the South African Communist Party as a forum for Marxist-Leninist thought Issue Number 180 of 2nd & 3rd Quarter 2010

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW, 1998, 47 (1), 29–44 Contributions of Behavioral Decision Theory to Research in Political Science by Richard R. Lau and Jack S. Levy Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA

Consideration of the original of Herbert Simon’s theory of ‘’satisficing’’ 1933- 1947 Reva Brown oxford university business school oxford UK

The New Public Services; Serving Rather than Steering (Robert B. Denhardt and Janet Vinzant Denhardt)

South African Government Information, ‘President Jacob Zuma concludes working visit to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’, 7th May 2010 (http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/2010/10051009051002.htm


Having come into contact with a civilization which has over-emphasized the freedom of the individual, we are in fact faced with one of the big problems of Africa in the modern world. Our problem is just this: how to get the benefits of European society — benefits that have been brought about by an organization based upon the individual — and yet retain African’s own structure of society in which the individual is a member of a kind of fellowship.





By the financial crisis, many developing countries had strong Economic growth is slowing down, Developmentis facing new challenges. The World Bank in April this year, a report said the financial crisis on African economies thanthe negative impact on the rest of the world even more serious.

1. The impact of financial crisis on the development of Africa,

 After the outbreak of the financial crisis facing the African continent flight investment, fiscal revenue, exports decline in demand, as well as the plight of domestic banks to reduce liquidity. In addition, several African countries have generally faced with currency devaluation, inflation pressures issues.
A direct consequence of the financial crisis led to a significant slowdown in economic growth in Africa, poverty increased, the development of Africa is facing new challenges. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) lowered again in May of this year on expectations of economic growth in Africa is forecast 2009 economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa will slow to 1.5%, below the
Populationgrowth rate. The World Bank, June 22 released a report entitled ‘2009 Global Development Finance: global recovery road map ‘of the report, which will be sub-Saharan Africa in 2009 and 2010 respectively, the economic growth rate down to 1% and 3.7% , well below the average of 5.7% over the past three years, the growth rate. World Bank Africa chief economist Jean Tadewala Yang pointed out that this poverty-stricken areas in Africa, and economic recession will lead to Africa 70 million babies die within the age and make the living standards of many families below the poverty line fell onto the basic difficult to sustain life. Faced with this grim situation, African countries have begun to take positive action to minimize the financial crisis on African economies. Since the second half of 2008, African countries held a series of meetings to discuss policy response to financial crisis, the meeting is largely a focus on investment, trade, infrastructure, assistance directly related to African development and poverty reduction issues.

 2. The trend of Western aid to toward Africa and it’s financial  crisis,                                                                                                    

For many African countries, the economic development of Western aid is an important source of financing. OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) statistics, in 2007 there were 22 African countries receiving assistance share of gross national income accounted for more than 10%. While Africa is also the Western countries has always been the key areas of assistance. 2006-2007, DAC member countries for assistance in sub-Saharan Africa accounted for the delivery of assistance to the total net amount of 45.9%, compared with 34.5% between 1996-1997, had more substantial improvements.
The financial crisis of western countries will inevitably show the effect or will have impacts on the development assistance of Africa the following can be the results

 2. 1. Africa will face danger of decline of Aid while western will keep promise on hard cash,

 In 2005, the Group of Eight pledged to increase aid by 2010 will be 50 billion U.S. dollars, half of which used to increase aid to Africa, that is, the amount of aid to Africa from 2004 to 29.5 billion U.S. dollars (actual final data) to 2010 545 100 million U.S. dollars (at 2004 prices and exchange rates). 2007. In addition to the Group of Eight commitments reaffirmed in 2005, adding to a total of 600 million dollars of aid money for Africa. However, DAC figures show. DAC member countries to Africa in 2007 to provide official development assistance amounted to only 38.7 billion U.S. dollars. If you want to achieve the performance target in 2005, from 2008 to 2010 aid to Africa increased by 17% per annum. DAC this year, according to preliminary data released in March, 2008, DAC member countries of bilateral aid to Africa amounted to 26 billion U.S. dollars, excluding debt relief, real growth of 10.6%; if included debt relief, then increased by only 1.2%. This means that if you want to promise, DAC member countries need to work harder the next two years, which is already financially troubled governments is undoubtedly a great challenge.
After the outbreak of the financial crisis, African countries generally expressed concern that developed countries could not fulfill the promise. Be held in London in April of this year’s Group of 20 summit, the participants will abide by the developed countries expressed their aid commitments to developing countries to continue to help them achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals. After the meeting, the United States, European Union, the World Bank, IMF and other have said it would increase aid to Africa. While countries and organizations expressed their willingness to increase aid, but for African countries is more important is whether a timely honor its promise

 2. 2. Areas of assistance continue to focus on social infrastructure, and increase the challenges of the emerging global development assistance,

 Since the 20th century, 90 years, Western countries have generally increased the area of social infraStructure assistance. In 2006, DAC member countries on Africa’s social assistance in the field of infrastructure accounted for 32.4% of total bilateral aid, focusing on Education (9.7%), Health (4.7%) and governance (6.7%) in aid. While the economic infrastructure and production assistance in the area accounted for 4.7% and 5.8%. Relative economic infrastructure and productive projects, social infrastructure and spend less money, but benefit from a wide range. Affected by the financial crisis in the financial constraints of the situation, social infrastructure projects will be more favored by the Western donor countries. At the same time, environmental protection, climate diversity, species diversity, etc., as a global public property, affecting countries in the world, and its importance is also growing concern, as the Western areas of the country’s new hot spot assistance. In 2007, DAC member countries assistance in the field of environmental protection amounted to 2.327 billion U.S. dollars, compared with 2002, 1.308 billion U.S. dollars increased by 77.9%.

 2. 3. Further emphasized that aid effectiveness and coordination between donor countries, but the short term can hardly be effective,

 In March 2005 held in Paris High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness adopted the ‘Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness’, the Declaration established ownership, docking, coordination, performance management and shared responsibility of the five principles. In September 2008, held in Accra, the Third High Level Forum on aid effectiveness has adopted a ‘Accra Agenda for Action’ (Aeera Agenda For Ac-tion), further emphasized the strengthening of coordination and the importance of enhancing aid effectiveness. According to the spirit of both the Declaration, DAC from 2008 began to require its member states to provide assistance to the budget within three years of relevant information, and assistance to all recipient countries and sectoral distribution of the number of States to conduct statistical analysis in order to enhance coordination between donor countries, to promote a better division of labor, reduce duplication project. Member States, however, help to strengthen aid effectiveness of this behavior does not seem very interested. The U.S. and Japan the two major donor countries to the DAC does not provide any assistance to the budget information, and another 10 member states provided only partial information. In fact, in the context of the financial crisis, Western countries will pay more attention to the interests of developing countries, especially developing countries, the scramble for Africa will also be more intense. Asking donor countries to strengthen coordination among the more levels remain in the appeals and initiatives. Is not binding and mandatory, national system of geographical and sectoral distribution of aid policy based more on national interest considerations, it is necessary coherence is not easy in the short term is difficult to achieve noticeable results.

3. The trend of china assistant and it’s characteristic

  China’s aid to Africa began in 1956, 50 years, the Chinese friendly to African countries provided assistance within its capacity. As a way of South-South cooperation, China’s assistance to Africa with Western aid presents different characteristics:

 3. 1. One of China’s aid to Africa has always been to keep their promises, timely and effective completion of the foreign aid projects,

 Since 2005 the United Nations High-Level Meeting on Financing for Development to 2006, China-Africa Cooperation Forum Beijing Summit, to the 2008 UN Millennium Development Goals High-Level Meeting, the Chinese government announced a package of assistance measures, African countries are the main target beneficiaries, China has also been active in earnest to honor the commitments of assistance. Although since the second half of 2008 since the financial crisis China’s economic development has brought unprecedented challenges, but the Chinese government has repeatedly said that China will not be because of the financial crisis to reduce aid to Africa. In February 2009, President Hu Jintao visit to Africa, during the solemn promise: China will earnestly implement the China-Africa Cooperation Forum Beijing Summit of the aid of non-identified initiatives, within its capabilities to continue to increase aid to Africa, debt relief for African countries. Expansion of non-trade and investment, strengthening China-Africa pragmatic cooperation. This year is the China-Africa Cooperation Forum last year of the implementation of eight initiatives, the current initiatives to implement smoothly, have achieved initial results, the Chinese government is fully capable of promises on schedule. China’s foreign aid has always been to keep their promises, and therefore highly praise the recipient countries.

 3. 2. China attaches great importance to the non-infrastructure and agricultural assistance, and the Western countries complement each other,

 Infrastructure and AgriCulture in Africa’s economic development and poverty eradication is essential, is very concerned about the African countries and the need to develop the field, is also China’s long-term focus of aid to Africa. 50 years, aided by China to Africa, 519 infrastructure projects, including the completion of over 2,000 kilometers railway, more than 3,000 kilometers of roads and dozens of stadiums (Hall); aided more than 140 agricultural projects, including farms, irrigation and water conservancy project , testing and promotion of stations, farm machinery processing, livestock and poultry breeding. The construction of these projects to promote local economic development, and by the recipient country wide acclaim. Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi that China’s participation in infrastructure development in Africa on the locally generated a ‘fundamental change and the impact of’. In recent years, the Chinese government to further increase the intensity of non-agricultural assistance, including the establishment of agricultural Technology demonstration centers to send agricultural experts, training of agricultural technicians. In the financial crisis and high food prices in the context of non-infrastructure and agricultural assistance is particularly important. Moreover, China’s national conditions and long-term assistance to the Experience accumulated so that China’s assistance in these two areas have a comparative advantage. Complement with the Western aid, to a certain extent, to fill the needs of African countries.

 . 3. China’s aid to Africa increasing emphasis on the people’s livelihood

 Medical, health, education and other people’s lives is directly related to people’s livelihood projects in China’s aid to Africa one of the priorities. In recent years, been further attention. In China announced a series of assistance measures including the construction of hospitals, schools, provision of antimalarial drugs and medical equipment, training doctors, teachers, increase student scholarships and many other actions. Focus on the livelihood of the project reflects China ‘people-oriented’, building a ‘harmonious world’ concept. The people’s livelihood projects directly benefit the local people, the effect is good, deep impact, will become China’s aid to Africa is one important direction.

3. 4. Aid, trade, Investmentand all-round multi-preferential measures more conducive to long- term development of Africa.

In addition to increased aid, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and measures to actively promote economic and trade cooperation with African countries to encourage enterprises to go out to invest in Africa to expand imports from Africa. These measures include giving the African least developed countries duty-free preferential policies, the establishment of China-Africa Development Fund, set up in Africa trade and economic cooperation zones. Since the outbreak of the financial crisis for non-investment and trade contraction, while the Chinese government said that China will work with Africa, a total of grams of the storm, continue to expand its non-trade and investment, was widely welcomed by African countries. African countries need external assistance to support, but more need to invest and trade in order to promote a more long-term economic development cooperation zones. Since the outbreak of the financial crisis for non-investment and trade contraction, while the Chinese government said that China will work with Africa, a total of grams of the storm, continue to expand its non-trade and investment, was widely welcomed by African countries. African countries need external assistance to support, but more need to invest and trade in order to promote a more long-term economic development


 Communication skills are critical to negotiating; it’s the ability to read others that leads to success.

Yet many negotiations are lost because people work at selling their position and don’t spend enough time fishing for viewpoints and objectives of others. People with the best negotiating skills are most often the winners.

The following steps will improve the odds of success and help get you want you want.

1. Listen Intently – Active listening is the first skill in negotiating. LISTEN! Realize that most people are trained to talk at people. Use that knowledge to your advantage.

2. Prepare To Win Or Be Sure To Lose – Prepare, prepare, prepare.

3. Know What You Want, Aim High – Do not be afraid to ask for more. Be an optimist and it will be a self-fulfilling prophecy.

4. Find Out What The Other Side Wants – The other side would not be there if they had nothing to gain. What are they after and how can you help them meet their needs? Ask open-ended questions.

5. Do Not Make Unilateral Concessions – Don’t offer across the board deals. “Lets work together,” is far different from, “Anything you want.”

6. There Is Power In Your Walk-Away Alternative – You never disclose this and never threaten. At what point will you walk away is your secret. If you put that on the negotiating table, it may be perceived as arrogance.

7. Do Not Allow Others To Intimidate You – Your point of view or issues are not less important than the people you negotiate with.

8. Be Patient. Try Not To Make The First Move – You may jump the gun before you understand the game. It is virtually impossible to negotiate if the pressure is on to make something happen immediately.

9. Be Suspicious Of Deadlines – They may be phony and a ploy to pressure you into making a bad decision if time runs out.

10. Be Reasonable And Flexible – Look for a satisfying agreement for both parties.

 11. Negotiation Is A Process – Remember that negotiations are a process and often take time to consummate. Don’t be quick to rush to conclusion.

12. Deal Honestly And Ethically – Deal with integrity; you may need future opportunities to negotiate with the same people in the future